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Hakka Phoneticisation.

There are several scripts employed here to represent the sound of Hakka; International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols, ordinary keyboard alphanumeric keys, and Chinese ZhuYin. The great variation in the representation requires one to use a standard. Linguists have developed IPA to represent the sounds of any language. However, it is not very practical for everyday use. A parallel set of these symbols is given in 7-bit ASCII notation is provided, originally from Evan Kirschenbaum's article, "FAQ: Representaing IPA Phonetics in ASCII".

( There also exist other ASCII reprepresentations, such as David Prager Banner's article, "Proposal for an ASCII Version of the IPA", but this is not used here in this article.)

Tones : Tone Sandhi : Initials : Rhymes : References : Index

Authors and titles of the books used to compile this table are show in the next table. TLPA refers to the "Taiwan Language Phonetic Alphabets". Some notes appear at the end of this article for abbreviations and terms.


Tones and Tone Markers

Tone
Type

Yin

Yang

Shang

Yin

Yang

Yin

Yang

Ping

Qu

Ru
Tone
Numbers
123456
1234756
1235678
彭德修 客家話發音字典
Hakka Pronouncing
Dictionary Romanisation
︿
a
ˋ
a
ˊ
a
 
a

a
ap
 
ap
海陸
HoiLiuk Dialect
ㄚ ˋ ㄚ   ㄚ ˊ ㄚ ﹀ ㄚ 。 ㄚㄆ   ㄚㄆ •
四縣
SiYan Dialect
ㄚ ˊ ㄚ ﹀ ㄚ ˋ ㄚ   ㄚㄆ • ㄚㄆ  
劉鎮發 客語拼音字彙
Hag5Ngi1 Pin1Yim1 Si4Fui1
a1 a2 a3 a4 ab5 ab6
張維耿 客家話詞典
Hag5Ga1Fa4 Ci2Dian2
a1 a2 a3 a4 ab5 ab6
馮輝岳 客家謠諺賞析 ㄚ ˊ ㄚ ﹀ ㄚ ˋ ㄚ   ㄚㄅ ˋ ㄚㄅ ˋ
TLPA 臺灣語言音標方案 - 四縣 a1 a5 a2 a3 a4 a8
臺灣語言音標方案 - 海陸 a1 a5 a2 a3 a7 a4 a8
Tone
Contours
MeiXian (張) /44/ /11/ /31/ /52/ /1/ /5/
JiaYing - XinHui (劉) /44/ /11/
/13/
/31/ /53/ /2/ /5/
MeiXian (漢語方言詞匯) /44/ /11/ /31/ /52/ /1/ /5/
MeiXian (JN) /44/ /12/ /31/ /42/ /21/ /44/
HuaYang (JN) /55/ /12/ /31/ /53/ /32/ /55/
HoiLiuk (JN) /53/ /55/ /13/ /31/ /22/ /55/ /32/
Shatoujiao (JN) /33/ /11/ /32/ /53/ /33/ /55/
Shatoujiao (HH) /33/ /11/ /32/ /53/ /3/ /5/

Typical Tone Sandhi Rules

For the majority of Hakka dialects, which belong to the JiaYing subgroup, tone sandhi occurs on the first syllable if the following syllable is of a lower tone for some tones only. For example, if [xn] is a syllable with tone n, the for the Jiaying Hakka subdialect of Shatoujiao (ShaTauKok, SaThewKok, SaTdiuGok, SaTeuGog):

ShatoujiaoTraditional Tone Categories
Tone x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6
Yin Ping Yang Ping Shang Qu Yin Ru Yang Ru
Normal /33/ /11/ /32/ /53/ /3/ or /33/ /5/ or /55/
Sandhi
Condition
[x1]
/33/ > /34/ or /35/

[x1] + [x2]
[x1] + [x3]
[x1] + [x5]

   [x4]
/53/ > /55/

[x4] + [x1]
[x4] + [x2]
[x4] + [x3]
[x4] + [x5]

  
Tones [x1] and [x4] are sandhied when it is followed by a tone which has a lower pitch.

Tones : Tone Sandhi : Initials : Rhymes : References : Index


Initials

Notes:

Hailu

The TLPA system used these symobls for the HaiLu (Hoiliuk) dialects of Taiwan. Square brackets [~] also represent HaiLu (HoiLiuk) alternate pronunciation. The names of the authors refer to their Hakka dictionaries with the exception of 馮輝岳 the author of 客家謠諺賞析 published by 武陵 ISBN 957-35-1074-X.

IPA
Phonetic
Hakka
Phonemic
ZhuYin
FuHao
(Mandarin)
Hakka
馮輝岳
Hakka
ZYFH
彭德修
Hakka
彭德修
Hagga
劉鎮發
Hagga
張維耿
HakGa
DWHS
STdG
TLPA ZhuYin /hak ka/
ASCII
IPA
bpbbb p/p/
pphppp ph/p'/
mmmmm m /m/
fffff f/f/
v vvvvv/v/
dtddd t /t/
tthtttdth /t'/
nnnnn n/n/
lllll l /l/
gkggg k /k/
kkhkkk kh /k'/
ng πngngngngng /N/
hhhhh h/h/
zch [ch]zzts ts /ts/
cchh [chh]cct tsh /ts'/
ss [s]sss, sh s /s/
jㄗむㄓめch [ch]j(i)j(i)j, ts ch /tc./
qㄘむㄔめchh [chh]q(i)q(i)ch chh /tc.'/
xㄙむㄕめs [s]x(i)x(i)s, sh sh /c./
y Jむㄖめ y(y)(y)y, z j /j/
Palatized and Labialized Velars
g-i- ㄍㄧㄍㄧki-gi-gi-gi-      
k-i- ㄎㄧㄎㄧkhi-ki-ki-ki-     
ng-i- 兀ㄧπㄧngi-ngi-ngi-ngi-     
h-i- ㄏㄧㄏㄧhi-hi-hi-hi-      
g-i- ㄍㄨㄍㄨko-gu-gu-      
k-i- ㄎㄨㄎㄨkho-ku-ku-      

Tones : Tone Sandhi : Initials : Rhymes : References : Index


Rhymes

The following list is derived from a number of sources, and represent rhymes across many different dialects of the Hakka language. The order here, follows the template :


                  [intial vowel] { [-i] [-u] [-m] [-n] [-ng] [-p] [-t] [-k] }

[intial vowel + secondary vowel] { [-i] [-u] [-m] [-n] [-ng] [-p] [-t] [-k] }

In the scheme for representing Taiwanese Hakka sounds 馮輝岳 has used the occlusive endings ㄅㄉㄍ (-b -d -g) in the final positions of the sounds, where the ZhuYin Fuhao as used by 彭德修 are ㄆㄉㄎ (-p -t -k).

IPA
Phonetic
No Hakka
Phonemic
ZhuYin
FuHao
張維耿 劉鎮發 彭德修 DWHS
STK/
STdG
TLPA ZhuYin ASCII
IPA
1 a a a a a a /a/
2 ai ai ai ai ai ai /ai/
3 au au ao
au
au ao
au
au /au/
4 am ㄚㄇ am am am am am ㄚㄇ /am/
5 an an an an an an /an/
6 ang ang ang ang ang ang /aN/
7 ap ㄚㄆ ab ab ap ab
ap
ap ㄚㄅ /ap/
8 at ㄚㄊ ad ad at ad
at
at ㄚㄉ /at/
9 ak ㄚㄎ ag ag ak ag
ak
ak ㄚㄍ /ak/
10 e ê e e e e /E/
11 eu ㄝㄨ êu eu eu iu eu ㄝㄨ /Eu/
12 em ㄝㄇ êm em em em em ㄝㄇ /Em/
13 en ㄝㄣ ên en en en en ㄝㄣ /En/
14 ep ㄝㄆ êb eb ep eb
ep
ep ㄝㄅ /Ep/
15 et ㄝㄊ êd ed et ed
et
et ㄝㄉ /Et/
16 em -ㄇ em   üm im     /@/
17 en -ㄣ en   ün in     /@n/
18 ep -ㄆ eb   üp ib
ip
    /@p/
19 et -ㄊ ed   üt id
it
    /@t/
20 i i i i i i /i/
21 im -ㄇ im im im im im -ㄇ /im/
22 in -ㄣ in in in in in -ㄣ /in/
23 ip -ㄆ ib ib ip ib
ip
ip -ㄅ /ip/
24 it -ㄊ id id it id
it
it -ㄉ /it/
25 ia -ㄚ ia ia ia ia ia -ㄚ /ia/
26 iai -ㄞ iai iai iai ai ia -ㄚ- /iai/
27 iau -ㄠ iau iao
iau
iau iao
iau
iau -ㄠ /iau/
28 iam -ㄚㄇ iam iam iam iam iam -ㄚㄇ /iam/
29 ian
ien
-ㄢ
-ㄝㄣ
iên ian ien en
ien
ian -ㄢ /ian/
/iEn/
30 iang -ㄤ iang iang iang iang iang -ㄤ /iaN/
31 iap -ㄚㄆ iab iab iap iab
iap
iap -ㄚㄅ /iap/
32 iat
iet
-ㄚㄊ
-ㄝㄊ
iad iad iet ied
iet
iat -ㄚㄉ /iat/
/iEt/
33 iak -ㄚㄎ iag iag iak iag
iak
iak -ㄚㄍ /iak/
34 ie -ㄝ ie     ie -ㄝ /iE/
35 ( ieu ) -ㄝㄨ   ieu ieu iu
iao
iau
ieu -ㄝㄨ /iEu/
36 ( iem ) -ㄝㄇ   iem am       /iEm/
37 ien -ㄢ iên ian ien en
ien
    /iEn/
38 ( iep ) -ㄝㄆ   ieb iep eb ( ieb )
ep ( iep )
    /iEp/
39 iet -ㄝㄊ iêd iad iet ed ( ied )
et ( iet )
    /iEt/
40 io -ㄛ io io io io io -ㄛ /iO/
41 ( ioi ) -ㄛ-   ioi ioi ioi ioi -ㄛ- /iOi/
42 ion -ㄛㄣ ion ion ion ion ion -ㄛㄣ /iOn/
43 iong -ㄛㄥ iong iong iong iong iong -ㄛㄥ /iON/
44 iot -ㄛㄊ   iod iot iod
iot
iot -ㄛㄉ /iOt/
45 iok -ㄛㄎ iog iog iot iog
iok
iok -ㄛㄍ /iOk/
46 iu -ㄨ iu iu iu iu iu -ㄨ /iu/
47 iui ㄨ- iui iui ui       /iui/
48 iun -ㄨㄣ iun iun iun iun iun -ㄛㄣ /iui/
49 iung -ㄨㄥ iung iung iung iung iung -ㄛㄥ /iuN/
50 iut -ㄨㄊ iud iud iut iud
iut
iut -ㄨㄉ /iut/
51 iuk -ㄨㄎ iug iug iuk iug
iuk
iuk -ㄨㄍ /iuk/
52 i
u

i i ü i
u
ii /i./
53 ( im )
( um )
-ㄇ
ㄨㄇ
  Im     iim ⊥ㄇ /i.m/
54 ( in )
( un )
-ㄣ
ㄨㄣ
  In     iin ⊥ㄣ /i.n/
55 ( ip )
( up )
-ㄆ
ㄨㄆ
  Ip     iip ⊥ㄅ /i.p/
56 ( it )
( ut )
-ㄊ
ㄨㄊ
  It     iit ⊥ㄉ /i.t/
57 o o o o o o /O/
58 oi ㄛ- oi oi oi oi oi ㄛ- /Oi/
59 on ㄛㄣ on on on on on ㄛㄣ /on/
60 ong ㄛㄥ ong ong ong ong ong ㄛㄥ /oN/
61 ot ㄛㄊ od od ot od
ot
ot ㄛㄉ /Ot/
62 ok ㄛㄎ og og ok og
ok
ok ㄛㄍ /Ok/
63 u u u u u u /u/
64 ui ㄨ- ui ui ui ui ui ㄨ- /ui/
65 un ㄨㄣ un un un un un ㄨㄣ /un/
66 ung ㄨㄥ ung ung ung ung ung ㄨㄥ /uN/
67 ut ㄨㄊ ud ud ut ud
ut
ut ㄨㄉ /ut/
68 uk ㄨㄎ ug ug uk ug
uk
uk ㄨㄍ /uk/
69 ua ㄨㄚ ua ua oa   ua ㄨㄚ /ua/
70 uai ㄨㄞ uai uai oai   uai ㄨㄞ /uai/
71 uan ㄨㄢ uan uan oan   uan ㄨㄢ /uan/
72 uang ㄨㄤ uang uang oang   uang ㄨㄤ /uaN/
73 uat ㄨㄚㄊ uad uad oat   uat ㄨㄚㄉ /uat/
74 uak ㄨㄚㄎ uag uag ok
oak
      /uak/
75 ue ㄨㄝ ue oe   ue ㄨㄝ /uE/
76 uen ㄨㄝㄥ uên uen oen   uen ㄨㄝㄥ /uEn/
77 uet ㄨㄝㄊ uêd ued oet   uet ㄨㄝㄉ /uEt/
78 uo ㄨㄛ uo uo o       /uO/
79 uon ㄨㄛㄣ uon uon oan       /uOn/
80 uong ㄨㄛㄥ uong uong ong
oang
      /uON/
81 ( uot ) ㄨㄛㄊ uod uod         /uOt/
82 uok ㄨㄛㄎ uog uog ok       /Ok/
83 m m m m m m /m-/
84 ( n ) n n n n n /n-/
85 ng ng ng ng ng ng /N-/

Notes

SiYan refers to four counties of WuHua, JiaoLing, PingYuan and XingNing, which surround Meixian. They together were once called the JiaYing Prefecture, from where many of today's speakers in Taiwan, HongKong and overseas are rooted. There are six tones in these dialects.

HaiLu refers to HaiFeng and LiuFeng on the southern coast of Guangdong. This area was once called HuiZhou Prefecture. Taiwanese Hailu speakers therefore come from these regions, and their tone structure has seven tones.

JN in the tables refer to Jerry Norman, "Chinese".

HH in the tables refer to Henry Henne, "Sathewkok Phonology".

Tones : Tone Sandhi : Initials : Rhymes : References : Index


© Dylan W.H. Sung 1999.

This page was created on Saturday 30th October 1999.

It was last updated on Tuesday 29th January 2000.