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Sa Tdiu Gok Hakka Sounds in Use Today
Initials in alphabetical order
\Finals
Initials-a -ai -ak -am -an -ang -ap -at -au -e -em -en -ep -et -i -ia -iak -iam -iang -iap -iau -im -in -io -ioi -iok -ion -iong -iot -ip -it -iu -iuk -iun -iung -o -oi -ok -on -ong -ot -u -ui -uk -un -ung -ut
a- a ai ak am an ang ap at au
b- ba bai bak ban bang bat bau be ben bet bi bia biak biang biau bin bit bo boi bok bong bot bu bui buk bun bung but
ch- chak cham chang chen chep chi chia chiak chiam chiang chiau chim chin chiok chiong chiu chiuk chiung chok chon chong chot chu chuk chung chut
d- da dai dak dam dan dang dap dat dau de dem den dep det di dia diak diam diang diap diau din diok diong dit diu do doi dok don dong dot du dui duk dun dung
e- e em en ep
f- fa fai fak fam fan fang fap fat fe fen fet fin fit fiu fo foi fok fon fong fu fui fuk fun fung fut
g- ga gai gak gam gan gang gap gat gau ge gem gen get gi gia giak giam giang giap giau gim gin gio giok giong gip git giu giuk giun giung go goi gok gon gong got gu gui guk gun gung gut
h- ha hai hak ham han hang hap hat hau he hem hen het hi hia hiak hiam hiang hiap hiau hin hio hiok hiong hip hiu hiun hiung ho hoi hok hon hong hot
i- i iau in iu
j- ja jak jam jang jap jia jiak jiam jiang jiap jiau jiok jiong jiot jiuk jok jong jot juk
k- ka kai kam kan kang kap kat kau ke kem ken kep ket ki kia kiak kiam kiang kiap kiau kim kin kio kioi kiong kip kit kiu kiuk kiun kiung ko koi kok kon kong ku kui kuk kun kung kut
l- la lai lak lam lan lang lap lat lau le lem len lep let li liak liam liang liap liau lim lin liok liong lip lit liu liuk liun liung lo loi lok lon long lot lu lui luk lun lung lut
m- ma mai mak man mang mat mau me men met mi mia miang miau min miong mit miu mo moi mok mong mu mui muk mun mung mut
ng- nga ngai ngak ngam ngan ngang ngap ngat ngau ngem ngen nget ngi ngia ngiak ngiam ngiap ngiau ngim ngin ngioi ngiok ngion ngiong ngip ngit ngiu ngiuk ngiun ngiung ngo ngoi ngok ngong ngui
o- o oi ok on ong ot
p- pa pai pak pan pang pat pau pen pet pi pia piak piang piau pin pit po poi pok pong pu pui puk pun pung
s- sa sai sak sam san sang sap sat sau se sem sen sep set si sia siak siam siang siap siau sim sin sio siok siong sip sit siu siuk so soi sok son song sot su sui suk sun sung sut
sh- shang shia shiak shiam shiang shiap shiau shio shiok shiong shiuk sho shok shong shuk
t- ta tai tak tam tan tang tap tat tau te ten tet ti tia tiak tiam tiang tiau tim tin tiok tiontiong tit tiu tiuk tiung to toi tok ton tong tot tu tui tuk tun tung tut
td- tda tdai tdam tdan tdang tdap tdat tdau tden tdet tdi tdiak tdiam tdiang tdiap tdiau tdin tdit tdiu tdiun tdo tdoi tdok tdon tdong tdot tdu tdui tduk tdun tdung tdut
ts- tsa tsai tsak tsam tsan tsang tsap tsat tsau tsen tset tsi tsia tsiak tsiam tsiang tsiap tsiau tsim tsin tsiok tsiong tsip tsit tsiu tsiuk tso tsoi tsok tson tsong tsot tsu tsui tsuk tsun tsung tsut
u- ung
v- va vai vak van vang vat ve vet vi vin vo voi vok von vong vot vu vui vuk vun vung vut
z- za zai zak zam zang zap zau ze zen zet zi zim zin zit ziu zok zong zu zui zuk zun zung

Notes
For the initials, Sa Tdiu Gok Hakka n~ is homophonous with l~ as an initial. (Here the tildes (~) shall be used to mean that the letters are proceeded or preceeded by other letters making the whole sound.) The letter u~ is an initial because of the sound "ung" for the nasal ng. So, there are 24 intials in all. For the finals, there are 47 that we have used here, and it is possible to expand this set to include all and every nuance of speakers from the surrounding area of ShaTauKok, but this would be unpractical.

This list is not a be all and end all, I may have missed a few sounds, or may have truncated them to fit into other sounds. An example of this would be ngen (meaning, depending on the tone, to sqeeze, to let happen reluctantly, or a year), could be written ngien, but I have left out the ~i~ in the ~ien sound in this shortening. Another would be the ~u~ or ~w~ feature that is found in other Hakka dialects too. For example gong (bright) could be rendered guong or gwong. Like ~ien, I have not included these however.

These minor variations depend mainly on the speaker who shapes the sound. The contents of the spoken dialect's vocabulary is the to a large degree uniformly the same.

The dipthong ch~ and combination ch~i~ are much like the t~i~ combination, so when ch~ word is not found, then please refer to t~i~ and vice versa. For example, chiang, chang, tiang meaning "green" would all sound pretty much homphonous to a cetain degree. Real Audio sample chang chiang tiang

Also, j~ and j~i~ are similar to the dipthong-medial ts~i~ combinations, e.g., tsiang, jang, jiang for the word used to mean "lean" when applied to meat. Real Audio sample jang jiang tsiang.

Similarly, sh~ and sh~i~ dipthong combinations can have the appearance of the sound created by s~i~, e.g. siong, shiong, shong, for the word meaning "box". Real Audio sample shong shiong siong


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This page was last updated on Saturday 28th February 1998. Started on Thu 11.12.97.

© Dylan W.H.S. 1996 onwards

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