The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

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The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements ƾǤ
B  
H He
Hydrogen Helium
1 2
Y e   N t
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbom Nitrogen Oxygen Flourine Neon
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
u   T ֺ C
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorous Sulphur Clorine Argon
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
[ t p g K W N S ~ ִ
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
p
o
B { j O K I
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pa Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
X Lanthanide Series r v ` E ] c z ۦ l
Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Ceasium Barium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Pollonium Actinium Radon
55 56 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
b J Actinide Series D u
/
i      
Fr Ra Rf Ha / Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu
Francium Radium Rutherfordium Hahnium
/
Dubnium
Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Ununnilium Unununium
87 88 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111
 
Lanthanides Series S d } i d z ^ |
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dyspropsium Holonium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium
57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
Actinides Series A \
f
} s Y
Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cm Es Fm Md No Lr
Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendeleevium Nobelium Lawrencium
89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103


 No B5   UnC-V3 UN UN-DEC Symbol Name      Mandarin Cantonese

  1 B   U+6C2B 氫 27691    H   hydrogen      qing1  hing1

  2    U+6C26 氦 27686    He  helium        hai4   hoi6

  3 Y   U+92F0 鋰 37616    Li  litium        li3    lei5

  4 e   U+9239 鈹 37433    Be  beryllium     pi1    pei1

  5 N   U+787C 硼 30844    B   boron         peng2  pang4

  6    U+78B3 碳 30899    C   carbon        tan4   taan3

  7    U+6C2E 氮 27694    N   nitrogen      dan4   daam6

  8    U+6C27 氧 27689    O   oxygen        yang3  yeung5

  9 t   U+6C1F 氟 27679    F   flourine      fu2    fat7

 10    U+6C16 氖 27670    Ne  neon          nai3   naai5

 11 u   U+9209 鈉 37385    Na  sodium        na4    naap9

 12    U+9333 錳 37683    Mg  magnesium     meng3  maang5

 13 T   U+92C1 鋁 37569    Al  aluminium     lu3    lui5

 14 ֺ   U+7845 硅 30789    Si  silicon       gui1   gwai1

 15 C   U+78F7 磷 30967    P   phosphorous   lin2   lun4

 16    U+F9CE 硫 63950    S   sulphur       liu2   lau4

 17    U+6C2F 氯 27695    Cl  chlorine      lu4    luk9

 18    U+6C2C 氬 27692    Ar  argon         ya4    a3

 19 [   U+9240 鉀 37400    K   potassium     jia3   gaap8

 20 t   U+9223 鈣 37411    Ca  calcium       gai4   koi3

 21 p   U+9227 鈧 37415    Sc  scandium      kang4  kong3

 22 g   U+9226 鈦 37414    Ti  titanium      tai4   taai3

 23    U+91E9 釩 37353    V   vanadium      fan2   faan4

 24    U+927B 鉻 37499    Cr  chromium      ming2  ming5

 25    U+9382 鎂 37622    Mn  manganese     mei3   mei5

 26 K   U+9435 鐵 37941    Fe  iron          tie3   tit8

 27 W   U+9237 鈷 37431    Co  cobalt        gu1    goo1

 28    U+93B3 鎳 37811    Ni  nickel        nie4   nip7

 29    U+9285 銅 37509    Cu  copper        tong2  tung4

 30 N   U+92C5 鋅 37573    Zn  zinc          xin1   san1

 31 S   U+93B5 鎵 37813    Ga  gallium       jia1   ga1

 32    U+937A 鍺 37754    Ge  germanium     zhe3   je2

 33 ~   U+7837 砷 30775    As  arsenic       shen1  san1

 34 ִ   U+7852 硒 30802    Se  selenium      xi1    sai1

 35    U+6EB4 溴 28340    Br  bromine       xiu4   chau3

 36    U+6C2A 氪 27690    Kr  krypton       ke4    hak7

 37    U+92A3 銣 37539    Rb  rubidium      ru2    yue6

 38    U+9376 鍶 37750    Sr  strontium     si1    si1

 39    U+91D4 釔 37332    Y   yttrium       yi1    yuet9

 40 p   U+92EF 鋯 37615    Zr  zirconium     gao4   go3

 41    U+922E 鈮 37422    Nb  niobium       ni2    lei4

 42    U+926C 鉬 37484    Mo  molybdenum    mu4    muk9

 43  U+9340 鍀 37696    Tc  technetium    de2    dak7

      o

 44 B   U+91D5 釕 37333    Ru  ruthenium     liao3  liu5

 45 {   U+92A0 銠 37536    Rh  rhodium       lao3   lo5

 46 j   U+9200 鈀 37376    Pa  palladium     ba3    ba2

 47    U+9280 銀 37504    Ag  silver        yin2   ngan4

 48    U+9398 鎘 37784    Cd  cadmium       ge2    gaak8

 49    U+92A6 銦 37542    In  indium        yin1   yan1

 50    U+932B 錫 37675    Sn  tin           xi2    sik8

 51 O   U+92BB 銻 37563    Sb  antimony      ti4    tai1

 52    U+78B2 碲 30898    Te  tellerium     di4    dai3

 53 K   U+7898 碘 30872    I   iodine        dian3  din2

 54 I   U+6C19 氙 27673    Xe  xenon         xian1  sin1

 55    U+92AB 銫 37547    Cs  caesium       se4    sik7

 56 X   U+92C7 鋇 37575    Ba  barium        bei4   booi3

 57 S   U+946D 鑭 37997    La  lanthanum     lan4   laan4

 58    U+9230 鈰 37424    Ce  cerium        shi4   si5

 59    U+9420 鐠 37920    Pr  praseodymium  pu3    po2

 60    U+91F9 釹 37369    Nd  neodymium     nu3    lui5

 61 d   U+9245 鉅 37445    Pm  promethium    ju4    gui6

 62    U+91E4 釤 37348    Sm  samarium      shan4  saam1

 63 }   U+92AA 銪 37546    Eu  europium      you3   yau5

 64    U+91D3 釓 37331    Gd  gadolinium    ga2    ga1

 65 i   U+92F1 鋱 37617    Tb  terbium       te4    tik7

 66    U+93D1 鏑 37841    Dy  dysprosium    di2    dik9

 67 d   U+9225 鈥 37413    Ho  holmium       huo2   foh2

 68 z   U+927A 鉺 37498    Er  erbium        er3    yi5

 69    U+92A9 銩 37545    Tm  thulium       diu1   diu1

 70 ^   U+943F 鐿 37951    Yb  ytterbium     yi4    yi3

 71 | U+9465 鑥 37989    Lu  lutetium      lu3    lou5

 72    U+927F 鉿 37503    Hf  hafnium       jia2   hap9

 73    U+926D 鉭 37485    Ta  tantalum      dan4   taan2

 74    U+93A2 鎢 37794    W   tungsten      wu1    woo1

 75    U+9338 錸 37688    Re  rhenium       lai2   loi4

 76 r   U+92E8 鋨 37608    Os  osmium        e2     oh4

 77 v   U+92A5 銥 37541    Ir  iridium       yi1    yi1

 78 `   U+9251 鉑 37457    Pt  platinum      bo2    bok9

 79    U+91D1 金 37329    Au  gold          jin1   gam1

 80 E   U+6C5E 汞 27742    Hg  mercury       gong3  hung3

 81    U+9248 鉈 37448    Tl  thallium      she2   ta1

 82 ]   U+925B 鉛 37467    Pb  lead          qian1  yuen4

 83 c   U+924D 鉍 37453    Bi  bismuth       bi4    bei3

 84 z   U+91D9 釙 37337    Po  pollonium     pu2    pok8

 85 ۦ U+7839 砹 30777    At  astatine      ai4    ngaai6

 86 l   U+6C21 氡 27681    Rn  radon         dong1  dung1

 87 b   U+9201 鈁 37377    Fr  francium      fang1  fong1

 88 J   U+9433 鐳 37939    Ra  radium        lei2   lui4

 89    U+9312 錒 37650    Ac  actinium      ei1    a1

 90 A   U+91F7 釷 37367    Th  thorium       tu3    to2

 91    U+93F7 鏷 37879    Pa  protactinium  pu2    pok8

 92 \   U+923E 鈾 37438    U   uranium       you2   yau4

 93  U+93BF 鎿 37823    Np  neptunium     na2    na4

 94  U+9208 鈈 37384    Pu  plutonium     bu4    bat7

 95  U+9387 鎇 37767    Am  americium     mei2   mei4

 96  U+92E6 鋦 37606    Cm  curium        ju2    guk9

 97  U+9307 錇 37639    Bk  berkelium     pei2   pui4

      f

 98 } U+9426 鐦 37926    Cm  californium   kai1   hoi1

 99 s U+9384 鎄 37764    Es  einsteinium   ai1    oi1

100    U+9428 鐨 37928    Fm  fermium       fei4   fai3

101    U+9346 鍆 37702    Md  mendelevium   men2   moon4

102 Y U+9369 鍩 37737    No  nobelium      nuo4   nok9

103    U+9412 鐒 37906    Lr  lawrencium    lao2   lo4

104 D   U+946A 鑪 37994    Rf  rutherfordium lu2    lo4

105 u [Not in Unicode]   Ha  Hahnium       han3   hon2 #

     [Not in Unicode]   Db  Dubnium       du4    do6

106  [Not in Unicode]   Sg  Seaborgium    xi3    hei2

107 i [Not in Unicode]   Bh  Bohrium       bo1    boh1

108  [Not in Unicode]   Hs  Hassium       hei1   hak7

109  [Not in Unicode]   Mt  Meitnerium    mai4   maak9

# Now superceeded by Dubnium.

Transuranic elements

Elements 104 and 105 was discovered at the heavy-ion cyclotron at Dubna, near Moscow USSR, in 1964 and 1968 respectively. The latter was named after the cyclotron site, and the former was named after a New Zealand Physicist, Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), who was prominent in early investigations into radioactivity.

Element 106 was named after Glenn Theodore Seaborg (b.1912) and American chemist and Nobel laureate (shared Chemistry, 1951, with American physicist Edwin MacMillan). He is known for his part in the discovery of many transuranic elements.

Element 107 is named after Niels Henrik David Bohr, a Danish physicist who first proposed energy levels and proponent of the early quantum theory at the beginning of the twentieth century. At first the proposal was to call this element Nielsbohrium, but since it was unprecedented to include the first name, it was left to the Danish to decide, and it is now Bohrium. The reason for the proposal "NielsBohrium" is probably to distinguish the intended physicist Niels Bohr, rather than his son, Aage Niels Bohr, who with Ben R. Mottleson proposed by James Rainwater put forward a doctoral thesis on the deformation of the nucleus and show its ability to vibrate and rotate. A.N. Bohr, B.R. Mottleson and J. Rainwater shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1975 for this explanation.

Elements 108 and 109 were discovered at the Unilac accelarator in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1984 and 1982 respectively. Hassium is derived from Hassias, an old latin term referring to an old German state.

Element 109 was named after Lise Meitner (1878-1968). Her contribution to science was that she worked out the mechanics of nuclear fission via chain reaction, and published the first paper on this topic in 1939. During 1926-1933, she was professor of physics at the University of Berlin. Her jewish roots caused her to move to Stockholm, Sweden, in 1938.

Only twenty years ago when I was still at school, there weren't any names for the transuranic elements beyond lawrencium (103). The following were stand-ins, if I may call them that. Some of those elements greater than 109 have been reported, but haven't been named as yet.



104 Unq Unnilquadium

105 Unp Unnilpentium

106 Unh Unnilhexium

107 Uns Unnilseptium

108 Uno Unniloctium

109 Unn Unnilnonium

110 Uun Ununnillium

111 Uuu Unununium

112 Uub Ununbium

113 Uut Ununtrium

114 Uuq Ununquadium

115 Uup Ununpentium

116 Uuh Ununhexium

117 Uus Ununseptium

118 Uuo Ununoctium

119 Uue Ununennium

120 Ubn Unbinilium



The general method seems to be to use latin number roots to indicate the digits. The name for the digits which have been agreed are as follows:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
nil un bi tri quad pent hex sept oct enn
n u b t q p h s o e

Elements 110 and 111 were discovered in 1994, at Darmstadt, Germany. Also, elements 114 and 116 have been reported. None of the transuranium elements occurs naturally in nature.


With thanks to "Uncle Al" and others for the names of the transuranium elements who answered my questions on sci.physics and alt.sci.physics from Tuesday 6 April 1999, in the thread "request, elements".

Source

  • Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, ISBN 0-19-583768-1. (1990) Appendix 11 "Table of Chemical Elements."
  • The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia, ISBN 1-85326-301-X. (1987, 1994), pp. 442-443.
  • Encarta 96, Microsoft. (1993-1995)
  • http://web.tiscalinet.it/cmc/transuranici.gif Transuranic Elements from Pierpaolo Bernardi bernardp_[at]_cli.di.unipi.it which first appeared in the unicode list unicode_[at]_unicode.org on Tuesday 23rd January 2001. The gif comes from the 1999 edition of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian {N~yC

    Sites

  • http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iupac/AtWt/element.html
  • http://www.webelements.com/index.html
  • http://www.chemdex.org/chemdex/periodic-tables.html


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    © Dylan W.H. Sung

    This page was created on Sunday 4th April 1999 and was last updated on Sunday 28th January 2001.