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廣東龍川四都話概況
Data on Guangdong Longchuan Sidu Dialect

宋偉雄 劉鎮發
Song Weixiong and Liu Zhenfa
(Dylan Wai Hung SUNG and Chun Fat LAU)

香港理工大學中文及雙語學系
Department of Chinese and Bilingual Studies, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

July 2002

1 簡介 Introduction

龍川縣位於廣東省東北部﹐目前屬於河源市。面積有3077平方公里﹐人口有83萬多。東邊是興寧縣﹑東南是五華縣﹑西南是東源縣﹑西邊是和平縣﹑北面是江西省(見圖1a)。龍川縣曾經有一段光輝的歷史﹐是廣東最早開發的地方之一。根據歷史記載﹐趙陀在漢初便在龍川的陀城當南越王。但過去由於屬於山區縣﹐交通蔽塞﹐龍川的發展很緩慢﹐建設也相對落後。直到最近﹐廣東大舉修築鐵路以後﹐龍川位於廣汕鐵路和京九鐵路的交叉點﹐成為廣東省東部的交通要塞。從此﹐龍川的名字才逐漸響起來﹐發展也一日千里。
Longchuan County is situated in the North East of Guangdong Province, which comes under local authority of Heyuan City. It covers an area of 3077 square kilometers, with a population of over 830,000 people. In the east is Xingning County, to the south east is Wuhua County, in the south west is DongYuan County, in the west is Heping County, and in the north, is Jiangxi Province, (see figure 1a). Longchuan County was has an illustrious history, being the earliest settled area of Guangdong. From historical sources, Zhao Tuo at the beginning of the Han Dynasty established Tuo Cheng and became the King of NanYue. But later because of the mountainous terrain, travel routes were restricted, and so Longchuan's development was slow, building paralleled decline. Until the present, the development of the railway in Guangdong, has made Longchuan on the Guangdong-Shantou Railway and the Beijing-Kowloon Railway into a crossroads, becoming Guangdong Province's crux. Longchuan's fame is growing, with developments growing apace.

過去我們對龍川的方言知道得不多。由於它被羅香林劃為純客住縣﹐一般的理解是龍川人都屬於“客家人”。在《中國語言地圖集》(1989)中﹐龍川方言被歸類為粵中片﹐跟和平﹑連平﹑博羅﹑河源組成一個單元﹐跟惠州不同﹐而跟梅縣﹑興寧﹑大埔等方言有差別。但在最新修編的《龍川縣志》(1994)第三十一卷有關方言的描述中﹐龍川方言被形容為跟梅縣話大同小異﹕聲母﹑韻母和梅縣差不多﹐有六個聲調﹐詞彙也幾乎一樣。
In the past, we did not know much about the dialects of Longchuan. Since Luo Xianglin first demarcated it as a principle area of Hakkas, there have been one faction who say that Longchuan are 'kejiaren' or Hakka peoples. In "Linguistic Maps of China" (1989), Longchuan dialect has been put into a Central Yue classification along with Heping, Lianping, Boluo, and Heyuan within one grouping, not following Huizhou, but different from those which are found in Meixian, Xingning, and Dabu dialects. However, in the most recent edition of "Longchuan County Chronicles" (1994) Vol. 31, those articles which touched upon dialects, Longchuan dialect is considered as following closely with Meixian dialect: initials and rhumes are close to Meixian, and having six tones, and vocabulary more or less the same.

最近﹐第二作者開始對龍川的方言感興趣。第一﹐有關龍川方言面貌的材料不多﹐無法看到其廬山真面目。第二﹐根據我們跟一些龍川人交談而提供的信息﹐都一致認為“龍川聲(口音)多”﹐隔一個村有一種話﹐而且各口音跟梅縣話相差相當大﹐通話有困難。所以我們意識到龍川其實是粵東的一個方言資料寶庫。根據第二作者的初步了解﹐龍川的黃布﹑四都﹑車田﹑陀城都有獨特的口音﹐其中四都跟陀城的口音較近。其他地方的口音還有待考察。
Recently, the second author has become interest in the Longchuan dialect. Firstly, we do not have much data about Longchuan dialect, so there is little to go on. Secondly, after interaction with some Longchuan people, it has become apparent that Longchuan dialect is more complex than previously though, according with the principle of next village a different dialect, moreover each accent compared to Meixian dialect is different, with difficulty understanding other speakers. Therefore we must treat Longchuan as a precious reservoir of dialect in Eastern Guangdong. Following the second author's first understanding, Longchuan's Huangbu, Sidu, Chetian, TuoCheng are all colloquial dialects, with Sidu and TuoCheng being quite close colloquial dialects. Other dialects need more study.

本文集中介紹龍川四都的方言。四都位於龍川的西南部(見圖1b)﹐位於東江的東岸﹐人口約一萬八千。距離歷史名鎮陀城三十多公里﹐而距離縣政府所在地老隆鎮也只有二十公里﹐交通可以說相當方便。發音人黃小姐是四都人﹐從小在四都生活﹐幾年前才到深圳沙頭角工作﹐最近跟第一作者結婚而移民英國﹐因而有時間慢慢錄音給我們分析研究﹐因此我們可以獲得四都話的第一手資料。
This paper will introduce LongChuan County's Sidu dialect. Sidu is situated in the south west of Longchuan (see figure 1b), and found on the eastern bank of the Dongjiang River, with a population of around 18,000 people. It is only over 30 kilometers from the historic city of Tuocheng, and is about 20 kilometers from the local government borough of LaoLong Town, conveniently linked, roadwise. The informat, Miss Huang is a local from Sidu, and born there, a few years agao, she went to Shenzhen's Shatoujiao to work, and recently, she married the first author and went to live in England, and because there was time to make a recording for study, we can now present the first data on Sidu dialect.

2 龍川四都話音系 Longchuan Sidu Dialect's Sound System

2.1 聲母(18﹐ 括號中為例字) Initials (18, with example characters)

p(巴) ph (怕) m(媽) f(花) v(娃)     
t(打) th (他)             l(啦)
k(家) kh (卡) (牙) h(哈)   (二)    
ts(渣) tsh (叉)   s(沙)   (氣)(也) (屋)

聲母方面﹐多數聲母的發音也跟梅縣話類似﹐古聲母。四都話只有一套的嘶音﹐跟香港客語﹑梅縣話相同﹐但跟五華﹑興寧和龍川其他一些地點的方言不一樣。四都話最突出的一點是零聲母和[v]對立﹐這是粵東﹑香港郊區等地方的客語所沒有的﹐但這個情現象也在新豐水源話中發生(周日健﹐1992)。而曉﹑匣母三四等念齒擦音則和五華﹑興寧的方言類似。龍川四都話跟梅縣話特別不同的地方:
With regard to the intials, they mostly resemble those of Meixian, with some Middle Chinese initials. Sidu dialect has only one set of silibants, like Hakka from Hong Kong and Meixian, but like Wuhua and Xingning and Longchuan, other regional dialects are not the same. Sidua dialect most prominent point is the zero and [v] initials, Eastern Guangdong and Hong Kong and some other areas do not have these. However, this is occurs in XinFeng Shuiyuan dialect (Zhou Rijian, 1992). For [xiao] and [xia] initials in the third and fourth deng are pronunced with dental fricatives like Wuhua, Xingning dialects. Longchuan Sidu dialect. Special points where Longchuan Sidu dialect does not follow Meixian dialect:

  1. n/l 不分﹐泥母混進來母全部唸[l]。
    n/l undistinguished, 泥 initial is mixed into 來 initial and all pronounced [l].

  2. 心邪曉匣母逢三四等一般唸[c.]。[c.]與[s]互補屬於同一個音位。
    心邪曉匣 initials when they are in the third and fourth deng are all pronounced [c.]. [c.] and [s] are complimentary to each other.

  3. 日母影組三四等一般唸[z.]。[z.]與[?]互補屬於同一個音位。這跟興寧的情況類似。
    日母影 initials in the third and fourth deng are all pronounced [z.]. [z.] and [?] are close in pronunciation. This follow Xingning dialect.

  4. [?]在後高元音[u]之前會跟[v]對立﹐如[un](那)/穩[vun]。
    [?] preceeding the high vowel [u] can follow [v], for example [un](那)/穩[vun].

2.2 韻母 (54﹐括號中為例字) rimes (54, with example characters)

(沙瓜車) (晒柴雞) (交高) (三) (山間) (牲) (插) (察) (拆)
(斜爹)   (嬌妙) (甜咸)   (餅醒) (涉)   (錫)
(四時渠)   (秋收魚) (心審) (新身)   (濕) (息日)  
(司師)                
(書姑) (雖非)     (門順) (宋公)   (不戌) (六叔)
        (訓) (雄)     (肉)
(洗米梯)   (搖頭照) (森暗鹽) (燈鱔銀)   (腌) (塞)  
        (先天)     (切)  
(波果疏) (開衰對)     (官盆酸) (桑光幫)   (刷缽) (索)
(靴茄) (癐)     (軟圈) (箱)   (啜雪月) (削)
  (我)              
      (唔)   (吳)      

龍川四都話跟梅縣話不同的地方:
Longchuan Sidu dialect differs from Meixian dialect in the following ways:

  1. 幾乎沒有[u]介音﹐梅縣話合口二等的[u]一般都刪除﹐但我唸[uOi]屬於例外。
    Some rimes do not have [u] as the medial vowels, Meixian close mouth rimes of the second deng which have [u] don't exist, except that 我 is pronounced [uOi] being the exception.

  2. 遇合三泥來見組一般念[iu](與饒平同)﹐莊組念[O](與五華興寧香港同)。
    遇 close mouth rimes in the third deng with 泥來見 initials are pronounced [iu] (as in Raoping), and in 莊 initial characters, they are pronounced [O] (as in Wuhua, Xingning, and Hong Kong).

  3. 蟹開三四多唸[ei](與新豐客語同)﹐如梯[thei]﹐少數唸[ai]﹐如雞。
    蟹 open mouth rimes in the third and fourth deng are mostly pronounced [ei] (as in Xinfeng Hakka), with some pronounced [ai], for example 雞.

  4. 流開三知章組念[iu] (與香港同) 。
    流 open mouth rimes in the third deng with 知章 initials are pronounced [iu] (as in Hong Kong).

  5. 效開三四知章組影組泥日母念[eu]﹐另外流開三疑母的牛也唸[eu]﹐因而跟魚不同音。
    效 open mouth rimes with 知章 initials, 影 initials, 泥日 initials are pronounced [eu], also 流 open mouth rimes in the third deng with the 疑 intial 牛 is pronounced [eu] since this does not follow the 魚 rime.

  6. 深臻攝開口的主要元音是[i] ﹐與香港﹑新豐客家話和印尼海陸客家話相同。
    深臻 rime classifications in the open mouth rimes have mostly become [i], as in Hong Kong, Xinfeng Hakka, and Indonesian Hailu Hakka dialects.

  7. 山合三四﹐臻合三多唸[On/Ot]﹐見組部份唸[un/ut]。
    山 close mouth rime in the third and fourth deng, and 臻 closed mouth rimes in the third deng are pronounced [On/Ot], with some 見 intial characters having rimes [un/ut].

  8. 蟹合三四止合三幫非組唸[ui] (與五華﹑香港同) ﹐在這裡的[u]是主要元音﹐不是介音。
    蟹 close mouth rimes in the third and fourth deng, 止 close mouth rimes in the third deng with 幫非 initials are pronounced [ui] (as in Wuhua and Hong Kong), with [u] as the main vowel, not a medial.

  9. 遇合一的“做”唸[u]韻。
    遇 close mouth rime in the first deng 做 is pronunced with a [u] rime.

  10. 舌尖聲母[ii]的範圍只限於止開三的精莊組﹐遠比梅縣話的少。
    Apical rime [ii] is restricted to 止 open mouth rimes in the third deng with 精莊 initials, far less than those occuring in the Meixian dialect.

  11. 無央元音[@]﹐梅縣話的[@-]四都話都唸[i-]。
    The central vowel [@] is not found, Meixian dialect's [@-] is pronounced as [i-] in Sidu dialect.

2.3 音節表 (從略) Syllable Chart (Omitted)

3. 聲調 Tones

3.1 單字調
Tones of Single Characters

龍川四都話有五個單字聲調。陰平包含的字最多﹐包括古調類的清平﹑濁上的大部份(相當於廣州和梅縣歸如去聲的濁上字)和濁去。陰平只包括古清上﹐上聲只包括古清上和次濁上﹐去聲只包括古陰去和部份濁上字(廣州唸陽上者)。入聲只有一個﹐包括所有古入聲字。這個格局跟粵北的烏逕和江西的大庾完全相同﹐跟新豐水源話類似﹐也跟惠州﹑河源有關﹐但跟梅縣﹑五華等不一樣。下表是四都話跟廣東其他方言的比較:
Longchuan Sidu dialect has five tones. Yinping contains the most characters, derived from Middle Chinese unvoiced Ping tone, a large proportion of voiced Middle Chinese Shang tone characters (similar to Guangzhou and Meixian dialects they have entered the voiced Qu tone) and voiced Qu tone characters. Yinping only includes Middle Chinese voiceless Shang tone characters, Shang tone characters only includes Middle Chinese voiceless Shang and sonorant Shang characters, Qu tone caracters only includes Middle Chinese YinQu and a proportion of voiced Shang characters (whereas they are Yang Shang characters in Guangzhou dialect). There is only one Ru sheng, which includes Middle Chinese Ru tone characters. These categories follows Northern Guangdong's Wujing and JiangXi Provinces's Dageng dialect completely, with some similarity with Xinfeng Shuiyuan dialect and also influences from Huizhou and Heyuan, but differs from Meixian and Wuhua dialects. The following table shows Sidu dialect compared with other dialects from Guangdong.

表1: 古調類在粵北及周圍方言的今調
Table 1: Middle Chinese Rime Categories in Northern Guangdong and Surrounding Dialects and Modern Tones

  U = Unvoiced
V = Voiced
U V U V U V U V 調類 Tone Type
MC Initial Type 古調類 Tone Total Tone Subtype
Examples 例字 花心 蛇婆 左手 養尾 瓦米 坐近 破救 臥射 必發 局學 數目 類型
Shaoguan
Shipo Dialect
韶關虱婆話@ 1 2 3 5 5 5 5 6 7 8
eight
Ia
Heyuan and Huizhou 河源、惠州 1 2 3 5 5 5 5 6 7 8
seven
Ia
Xinfeng
Shuiyuan Dialect
新豐水源話 16 2 3 5 5 5 5 16 7 8
six
Ib
Wujing, Sidu and Dayu 烏逕、四都、大庾 16 2 3 5 5 5 5 16 16,78 16,78
five
Ic
Meixian Dialect 梅縣話 1 2 3 1 3 1*, 56 56 56 7 8
six
IIa
Xinfeng Hakka and Wuhua 新豐客家話、五華 1 2 3 1 3 1*, 36 5 36 7 8
six
IIb
Guangzhouhua (Cantonese) 廣州話 1 2 3 4 4 4*, 6 5 6 7, 7’ 8
nine
III
Putonghua 普通話 1 2 3 3 3 56 56 56 2 56, 2
four
IV

1=陰平, 2=陽平, 3=陰上, 4=陽上, 5=陰去, 6=陽去, 56=去聲, 7=陰入, 7’=中入, 8=陽入
1=Yinping, 2=Yangping, 3=Yinshang, 4=Yangshang, 5=Yinqu, 6=Yangqu, 56=Qu tone, 7=Yinru, 7’=Mid ru, 8=Yangru

@ 另外還有一個變調屬於小稱變讀,來源自各古調類,在這裡沒有舉例
@ An alternative tone sandhi which occur in a few readings,originating from each Middle Chinese tone categories,though no examples are given here.

*白讀音
Colloquial reading.

3.2 連續變調
Tone Sandhi in Compounds

龍川四都話在兩字詞組中只有去聲不變。入聲只有一個﹐但在變調時會產生一個變調3。其餘聲調的變調都不會產生新的調值。
Only the Qu tone in Longchuan Sidu dialect compounds of two characters does not exhibit tone sandhi. There is only one Ru tone, though during tone sandhi, a sandhi tone 3 is produced. Other tones when exhibiting tone sandhi does not produce new tone contours.

表2 龍川四都話變調
Table 2 Longchuan Sidu Dialect Tone Sandhi

  陰平 陽平
原調 33 53 35 31 3
變調 31﹐53 31 53 5

龍川四都話的變調規律看起來也相當複雜﹐但只要小心跟新豐水源話比較﹐可以發現它跟新豐水源話有點類似。新豐的入聲不變﹐但四都卻在變調時“還原”了一個入聲。另外﹐新豐的陰平不變﹐四都卻在去聲不變。陽平和上聲的聲調變化卻幾乎一樣。
Longchuan Sidu dialect's tone sandhi rules seem rather complex at first glance, but on careful inspection, but when comparing Xinfeng Shuiyuan dialect, one discovers that it follows the categories in Xinfeng Shuiyuan dialect. Xinfeng dialect's Ru tone does not change, though in Sidu dialect despite the tone sandhi, it only has one Ru tone. Also, Xinfeng's Yinping does not change, Sidu dialect's Qu tone does not change. Yangping and Shang tone's tone sandhi can be considered the same.

表3 龍川四都話二字變調規律
Table 3 Longchuan Sidu Dialect Tone Sandhi Rules for Two Character Compounds

前字 / 後字3353#35313
33*31 3331 5353 3531 31
5331 33**31 5331 3531 3
3553 3353 3553 3153 3
31
35 335 355 315 3

*前字來自古清平者不變
*The leading character that comes from the Middle Chinese unvoiced Ping tone characters does not change

**後字來自古清平者不變
**The following character that comes from the Middle Chinese unvoiced Ping tone characters does not change.

#有時是後字變為31﹐如“年﹑頭”﹐但不一定每個詞都變。前字有變也有不變。
#Sometimes it is the following character which is sandhied to become /31/. For example, "年, 頭", but it isn't a fixed rule for all compounds. The leading character changes and sometimes doesn't change.

三字以上組成的詞一般也根據以上的規律變調。
In three character or more compounds which form a phrase they all sandhi according to the above rules.

4 詞彙及語法 Vocabulary and Grammar

龍川四都話詞彙及語法雖然大部分和梅縣話相同﹐但也有一些基本詞彙跟梅縣話或其他嘉應系統的客語不一樣。這些不同的部份﹐卻和惠州﹑河源等“本地話”系統的一致。這些詞彙部分和粵語相同﹕
Longchuan Sidu dialect's vocabulary and grammar for the most part resembles Meixian dialect, but there are some basic vocabulary items which differ with Meixian or other Jiaying Hakka areas. These differences are similar to the Bendi areas of Huizhou and Heyuan. These items of vocabulary are similar to those found in Yue languages:

飛鼠(蝙蝠) bat﹑蜞蜇(蟑螂) cockroach﹑簷蛇(壁虎) lizard﹑蛤ma2 frog (這裡的數字是調類﹐2表示是陰平﹐請參考表1﹐下同 the number represents the tone, 2 represents the Yinping tone, see table 1, as in the following items)﹑仔(兒子) son﹑女(女兒) daughter﹑女婿 son-in-law﹑睇(看) see﹑畀(給, 被) give﹑睏覺(睡覺) sleep﹑眼睏(打瞌睡) sleepy﹑嘢(東西) thing﹑利(舌頭) tongue﹑結(液體稠) thick 等 etc。

但有一部分詞彙和粵語和客語都不同﹕
There is a number of vocabulary items which differ from both Yue and Hakka dialects:

百縮(蜈蚣) centipede﹑興(嗅) smell﹑捋(宰動物) to slaughter livestock﹑我lei16(我們) we﹑un5隻(那個) that one﹑做嘢(為什麼) why﹑肚落(裡面) inside﹑跟(找) find﹑au1(過去式)﹑un5(進行式)等。

這些詞卻和惠州河源等方言一致。
These words are found only in Huizhou and Heyuan.

四都話的人稱代名詞和梅縣的有明顯的差別﹕
Differences between Sidu Dialect and Meixian Dialect Personal Pronouns

 
  313153533
313331335333533 33
333333333133---
們的313331335333---

指示代詞也很特別﹕
Positional Pronouns

 
333353533
333335335333
35353133
33 33 3333 5333

四都話的週圍都是嘉應話群的客家話。但四都話卻保持了一批和粵語共有﹐而在大多數客語不說的詞彙。這些詞彙在惠州話群中相當固定(劉鎮發﹐2002)。由於四都話周圍都沒有粵語方言﹐卻擁有一批和粵語相同的詞彙﹐很難說是語言接觸的結果。按照目前的情況看來﹐這些詞是四都話固有﹐還沒有被客語詞取代的詞彙。換句話說﹐這些詞彙應該是四都話的底層詞。
Sidu dialect lies in the center of a Jiaying area of Hakka. However, Sidu dialect has some small portion of resemblence to Yue dialect items, however, in items which are rarely used in Hakka. These vocabulary items are found in Huizhou dialect varieties (劉鎮發﹐2002). Since Sidu dialect is not surrounded by Yue dialects, it nevertheless has vocabulary items similar with Yue dialects, which is hard to account for linguistically. The situation suggests that Sidu dialect has these items natively and not influenced by Hakka vocabulary items. In other words, these words form a basic strata of Sidu dialect.

語法方面﹐四都話和梅縣話一樣使用詞綴e(輕聲)作為名詞的詞尾﹐而且它會被前一個音節的韻尾順同化﹐例如﹕
With respect to grammar, Sidu dialect is similar to Meixian dialect in utilising e (unstressed tone) as a suffix, moreover, it is affected by the syllable ending preceeding it, for example

柑me﹑包ve﹑粽nge﹑朳te﹑茄e等。


參考文獻﹕ Bibliography
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© Dylan Sung and Lau ChunFat 2002

The Chinese text was written by Dr. C.F. Lau, and translated by Dylan Sung. This paper was given in the Nanchang conference on Hakka studies between 2nd July 2002 and 6th July, 2002 by Dr. Lau. yanxiuhong kindly gave the list of papers on the Hakka forum at http://www.asiawind.com/php3/php/forums/read.php?f=1&i=1322&t=1316. This paper was listed as number 47 on that list.

This page was last updated on Tuesday 23 July 2002.