Song Weixiong and Liu Zhenfa
(Dylan Wai Hung SUNG and Chun Fat LAU)
Department of Chinese and Bilingual Studies, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Longchuan County is situated in the North East of Guangdong Province, which comes under local authority of Heyuan City. It covers an area of 3077 square kilometers, with a population of over 830,000 people. In the east is Xingning County, to the south east is Wuhua County, in the south west is DongYuan County, in the west is Heping County, and in the north, is Jiangxi Province, (see figure 1a). Longchuan County was has an illustrious history, being the earliest settled area of Guangdong. From historical sources, Zhao Tuo at the beginning of the Han Dynasty established Tuo Cheng and became the King of NanYue. But later because of the mountainous terrain, travel routes were restricted, and so Longchuan's development was slow, building paralleled decline. Until the present, the development of the railway in Guangdong, has made Longchuan on the Guangdong-Shantou Railway and the Beijing-Kowloon Railway into a crossroads, becoming Guangdong Province's crux. Longchuan's fame is growing, with developments growing apace.
In the past, we did not know much about the dialects of Longchuan. Since Luo Xianglin first demarcated it as a principle area of Hakkas, there have been one faction who say that Longchuan are 'kejiaren' or Hakka peoples. In "Linguistic Maps of China" (1989), Longchuan dialect has been put into a Central Yue classification along with Heping, Lianping, Boluo, and Heyuan within one grouping, not following Huizhou, but different from those which are found in Meixian, Xingning, and Dabu dialects. However, in the most recent edition of "Longchuan County Chronicles" (1994) Vol. 31, those articles which touched upon dialects, Longchuan dialect is considered as following closely with Meixian dialect: initials and rhumes are close to Meixian, and having six tones, and vocabulary more or less the same.
Recently, the second author has become interest in the Longchuan dialect. Firstly, we do not have much data about Longchuan dialect, so there is little to go on. Secondly, after interaction with some Longchuan people, it has become apparent that Longchuan dialect is more complex than previously though, according with the principle of next village a different dialect, moreover each accent compared to Meixian dialect is different, with difficulty understanding other speakers. Therefore we must treat Longchuan as a precious reservoir of dialect in Eastern Guangdong. Following the second author's first understanding, Longchuan's Huangbu, Sidu, Chetian, TuoCheng are all colloquial dialects, with Sidu and TuoCheng being quite close colloquial dialects. Other dialects need more study.
This paper will introduce LongChuan County's Sidu dialect. Sidu is situated in the south west of Longchuan (see figure 1b), and found on the eastern bank of the Dongjiang River, with a population of around 18,000 people. It is only over 30 kilometers from the historic city of Tuocheng, and is about 20 kilometers from the local government borough of LaoLong Town, conveniently linked, roadwise. The informat, Miss Huang is a local from Sidu, and born there, a few years agao, she went to Shenzhen's Shatoujiao to work, and recently, she married the first author and went to live in England, and because there was time to make a recording for study, we can now present the first data on Sidu dialect.
2 龍川四都話音系 Longchuan Sidu Dialect's Sound System
2.1 聲母(18﹐ 括號中為例字) Initials (18, with example characters)
With regard to the intials, they mostly resemble those of Meixian, with some Middle Chinese initials. Sidu dialect has only one set of silibants, like Hakka from Hong Kong and Meixian, but like Wuhua and Xingning and Longchuan, other regional dialects are not the same. Sidua dialect most prominent point is the zero and [v] initials, Eastern Guangdong and Hong Kong and some other areas do not have these. However, this is occurs in XinFeng Shuiyuan dialect (Zhou Rijian, 1992). For [xiao] and [xia] initials in the third and fourth deng are pronunced with dental fricatives like Wuhua, Xingning dialects. Longchuan Sidu dialect. Special points where Longchuan Sidu dialect does not follow Meixian dialect:
2.2 韻母 (54﹐括號中為例字) rimes (54, with example characters)
Longchuan Sidu dialect differs from Meixian dialect in the following ways:
2.3 音節表 (從略) Syllable Chart (Omitted)
3. 聲調 Tones
Tones of Single Characters
Longchuan Sidu dialect has five tones. Yinping contains the most characters, derived from Middle Chinese unvoiced Ping tone, a large proportion of voiced Middle Chinese Shang tone characters (similar to Guangzhou and Meixian dialects they have entered the voiced Qu tone) and voiced Qu tone characters. Yinping only includes Middle Chinese voiceless Shang tone characters, Shang tone characters only includes Middle Chinese voiceless Shang and sonorant Shang characters, Qu tone caracters only includes Middle Chinese YinQu and a proportion of voiced Shang characters (whereas they are Yang Shang characters in Guangzhou dialect). There is only one Ru sheng, which includes Middle Chinese Ru tone characters. These categories follows Northern Guangdong's Wujing and JiangXi Provinces's Dageng dialect completely, with some similarity with Xinfeng Shuiyuan dialect and also influences from Huizhou and Heyuan, but differs from Meixian and Wuhua dialects. The following table shows Sidu dialect compared with other dialects from Guangdong.
Table 1: Middle Chinese Rime Categories in Northern Guangdong and Surrounding Dialects and Modern Tones
| U = Unvoiced|
V = Voiced
|U||V||U||V||U||V||U||V||調類 Tone Type|
|MC Initial Type||古調類||清||濁||清||濁||清||濁||清||濁||Tone Total||Tone Subtype|
|韶關虱婆話@||1||2||3||5||5||5||5||6||7||8|| 八 |
|Heyuan and Huizhou||河源、惠州||1||2||3||5||5||5||5||6||7||8|| 七 |
|新豐水源話||16||2||3||5||5||5||5||16||7||8|| 六 |
|Wujing, Sidu and Dayu||烏逕、四都、大庾||16||2||3||5||5||5||5||16||16,78||16,78|| 五 |
|Meixian Dialect||梅縣話||1||2||3||1||3||1*, 56||56||56||7||8|| 六 |
|Xinfeng Hakka and Wuhua||新豐客家話、五華||1||2||3||1||3||1*, 36||5||36||7||8|| 六 |
|Guangzhouhua (Cantonese)||廣州話||1||2||3||4||4||4*, 6||5||6||7, 7’||8|| 九 |
|Putonghua||普通話||1||2||3||3||3||56||56||56||2||56, 2|| 四 |
1=陰平, 2=陽平, 3=陰上, 4=陽上, 5=陰去, 6=陽去, 56=去聲, 7=陰入, 7’=中入, 8=陽入
1=Yinping, 2=Yangping, 3=Yinshang, 4=Yangshang, 5=Yinqu, 6=Yangqu, 56=Qu tone, 7=Yinru, 7’=Mid ru, 8=Yangru
@ An alternative tone sandhi which occur in a few readings，originating from each Middle Chinese tone categories，though no examples are given here.
Tone Sandhi in Compounds
Only the Qu tone in Longchuan Sidu dialect compounds of two characters does not exhibit tone sandhi. There is only one Ru tone, though during tone sandhi, a sandhi tone 3 is produced. Other tones when exhibiting tone sandhi does not produce new tone contours.
Table 2 Longchuan Sidu Dialect Tone Sandhi
Longchuan Sidu dialect's tone sandhi rules seem rather complex at first glance, but on careful inspection, but when comparing Xinfeng Shuiyuan dialect, one discovers that it follows the categories in Xinfeng Shuiyuan dialect. Xinfeng dialect's Ru tone does not change, though in Sidu dialect despite the tone sandhi, it only has one Ru tone. Also, Xinfeng's Yinping does not change, Sidu dialect's Qu tone does not change. Yangping and Shang tone's tone sandhi can be considered the same.
Table 3 Longchuan Sidu Dialect Tone Sandhi Rules for Two Character Compounds
|前字 / 後字||33||53#||35||31||3|
|33*||31 33||31 53||53 35||31 31||－|
|53||31 33**||31 53||31 35||－||31 3|
|35||53 33||－||53 35||53 31||53 3|
|3||5 33||－||5 35||5 31||5 3|
*The leading character that comes from the Middle Chinese unvoiced Ping tone characters does not change
**The following character that comes from the Middle Chinese unvoiced Ping tone characters does not change.
#Sometimes it is the following character which is sandhied to become /31/. For example, "年, 頭", but it isn't a fixed rule for all compounds. The leading character changes and sometimes doesn't change.
In three character or more compounds which form a phrase they all sandhi according to the above rules.
4 詞彙及語法 Vocabulary and Grammar
Longchuan Sidu dialect's vocabulary and grammar for the most part resembles Meixian dialect, but there are some basic vocabulary items which differ with Meixian or other Jiaying Hakka areas. These differences are similar to the Bendi areas of Huizhou and Heyuan. These items of vocabulary are similar to those found in Yue languages:
飛鼠(蝙蝠) bat﹑蜞蜇(蟑螂) cockroach﹑簷蛇(壁虎) lizard﹑蛤ma2 frog (這裡的數字是調類﹐2表示是陰平﹐請參考表1﹐下同 the number represents the tone, 2 represents the Yinping tone, see table 1, as in the following items)﹑仔(兒子) son﹑女(女兒) daughter﹑女婿 son-in-law﹑睇(看) see﹑畀(給, 被) give﹑睏覺(睡覺) sleep﹑眼睏(打瞌睡) sleepy﹑嘢(東西) thing﹑利(舌頭) tongue﹑結(液體稠) thick 等 etc。
There is a number of vocabulary items which differ from both Yue and Hakka dialects:
百縮(蜈蚣) centipede﹑興(嗅) smell﹑捋(宰動物) to slaughter livestock﹑我lei16(我們) we﹑un5隻(那個) that one﹑做嘢(為什麼) why﹑肚落(裡面) inside﹑跟(找) find﹑au1(過去式)﹑un5(進行式)等。
These words are found only in Huizhou and Heyuan.
Differences between Sidu Dialect and Meixian Dialect Personal Pronouns
Sidu dialect lies in the center of a Jiaying area of Hakka. However, Sidu dialect has some small portion of resemblence to Yue dialect items, however, in items which are rarely used in Hakka. These vocabulary items are found in Huizhou dialect varieties (劉鎮發﹐2002). Since Sidu dialect is not surrounded by Yue dialects, it nevertheless has vocabulary items similar with Yue dialects, which is hard to account for linguistically. The situation suggests that Sidu dialect has these items natively and not influenced by Hakka vocabulary items. In other words, these words form a basic strata of Sidu dialect.
With respect to grammar, Sidu dialect is similar to Meixian dialect in utilising e (unstressed tone) as a suffix, moreover, it is affected by the syllable ending preceeding it, for example
The Chinese text was written by Dr. C.F. Lau, and translated by Dylan Sung. This paper was given in the Nanchang conference on Hakka studies between 2nd July 2002 and 6th July, 2002 by Dr. Lau. yanxiuhong kindly gave the list of papers on the Hakka forum at http://www.asiawind.com/php3/php/forums/read.php?f=1&i=1322&t=1316. This paper was listed as number 47 on that list.
This page was last updated on Tuesday 23 July 2002.