Zhou 周 1066 BC - 221 BC

Unfortunately, I don't have enough information regarding this period to list all the dukes 公, marquises 侯, earls 伯 , viscounts 子, and barons 男, especially those that pre-date the earliest shown on the tables. Please note that a few characters on this page are equivalent characters, rather than the original, owing to the lack of the originals in Big 5. They have not been indicated.

The Zhou Dynasty is marked by two distinct periods. Because the Zhou were originally situated in the West, and gradually moved East to colonise the old Shang territories, they had two capitals. The homeland or old capital is situated near Xi'An 西安, and that place was known as GaoJing 鎬京. The eastern capital was near LuoYang 洛陽, called LuoYi 雒邑. When the invasion of the QuanRong 犬戎 tribe occured in 771 which sacked the the western capital, killing of King You 幽王, it prompted the court to be moved eastwards to LuoYi. This gives rise the names Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou refering to centres of Zhou governance at the time.

Western Zhou 西周 1066 BC - 770 BC

The period known as Western Zhou is split into two parts, 1066 BC - 842 BC and 841 BC - 770 BC. The Zhou Dynasty defeated Shang around 1066 BC and founded by Ji1 Fa1 who became known by his reign title of King Wu3. The territory was divided up and some were given to his family whilst others to his generals. King Wu3 became the hegemonist controlling the whole of the ancient China, or Zhou.

Early Western Zhou1 早西周 (Xi1 Zhou1) 1066 BC - 842 BC

After the defeat of the Shang, King Wu divided the territory under his control between his family and generals as rewards amd enable governing the area.

The Zhou settled in the capital 雒邑, and the early period was marked by good governance of Kings Wu3, Cheng2, and Kang1. King Zhao1 lead an expedition to the south to subjugate the Jing Chu 荊楚, but died drowning in the Han River 漢水 on his return. His son King Mu4 succeeded him and recieved tribute from the QuanRong 犬戎, crushed the eastern rebels of XuRong 徐戎. His was succeded by Kings Gong1, Yi4, Xiao4, Yi2. Yi2 was plagued with illness and Zhou's fortunes like him began to wane.

Early Western Zhou1 早西周 (Xi1 Zhou1) 1066 BC - 842 BC
武王 King Wu3 姬~發Ji1 Fa1
成王 King Cheng2 ~誦
康王 King Kang1 ~釗
昭王 King Zhao1 ~瑕
穆王 King Mu4 ~滿
共王 King Gong1 ~繄
懿王 King Yi4 ~艱
孝王 King Xiao4 ~辟方
夷王 King Yi2 ~燮
厲王 King Li4 ~胡

Late Western Zhou1 晚西周 (Xi1 Zhou1) 842 BC - 771 BC

When King Li4 succeeded the throne, there soon followed unrest due to his bad governance, and he fled. It was left to his ministers Duke Ding of Zhou 周定公 and Duke Mu of Shao 召穆公 to govern, which gave this period joint rule the name GongHe XingZheng 共和行政 begun in 841BC.

King Xuan 宣王 succeeded in 827 BC, and he tried to quell the western tribes (西戎 such as 姜戎, 太原戎, 條戎 and 奔戎) on the frontiers of Zhou. After he died, his son King You 幽王 succeeded in 781 BC.

The rulers of the main states are listed against the current Zhou King below, where the minus sign in the tables below, refers to "BC" used elsewhere on this page.

Pre-GongHe State Rulers 共和前 -842 BC

厲王

靖侯
-858

熊勇
-847

武侯
-863

夷伯
-864

幽公
-855

釐公
-858

惠侯
-864

真公
-858

武公
-850


-844

釐侯
-854

 
Late Western Zhou1 晚西周 (Xi1 Zhou1) 842 BC - 771 BC

共和
行政
-841

釐侯
-840

態嚴
-837

夷侯
-837

幽伯
-834

釐公
-831

惠公
-830

           

宣王

-827

獻侯
-822

穆侯
-811

殤叔
-784

態霜
-827

態徇
-821

態鄂
-799

若敖
-790

釐侯
-809

戴伯
-825

惠伯
-795

武公
-795

哀公
-800

戴公
-799

釐侯
-826

頃侯
-790

武公
-825

懿公
-815

伯御
-806

孝公
-796

歷公
-824

文公
-815

成公
-803

莊公
-794

莊公
-821

武公
-812

桓公

-806


宣王
之弟

幽王
宮涅
-781

文侯
-780

     

夷公
-780

平公
-777

       

襄公
-777

   

Eastern Zhou 東周 770 BC - 256 BC

Western Zhou fell after the invasion of the Quan3Rong2 犬戎. Warning pyres on mountain ridges were one way of indicate imminent invasion. They were ignored by the Zhou military, because of the folly of the last Western Zhou King You 幽王. He was in love with 褒姒 a beautiful woman who loved to have the pyres lit for her amusement. So when they were lit to signal an actual invasion, no-one believed anything was happening.

The QuanRong sacking of the western capital at GaoJing 高京 forced the Zhou court eastwards to LuoYi 雒邑, thus the name Eastern Zhou. It was marked by two succesive periods, ChunQiu 春秋 (Spring Autumn) 770 BC - 476BC and ZhanGuo 戰國 Warring States 475 BC - 221 BC.

With less and less respect for the Zhou high kings, whose roles gradually turned ceremonial, different states vied for supremecy. Due to the ethics of the age, the Zhou Kings lead only in name, so we can think of this era as a confederacy of states each wanting to gain the upper hand. The age of the overlords (霸) began. Some states challenged the role of the Zhou kings by elevating themselves into kingdoms (王國) which occured in the latter stages of the Warring States era.

Eastern Zhou1 東周 (Dong1 Zhou1) 770 BC - 256
春秋 770 BC - 476BC Spring and Autumn

平王
宣臼
-770

昭侯
-745

孝侯
-739

鄂侯
-723

蚡冒
-757

武王
-740

共侯
-761

戴侯
-759

宣侯
-749

霄敖
-763

穆公
-759

桓公
-756

文公
-754

桓公
-744

武公
-765

宣公
-747

穆公
-728

哀侯
-766

鄭侯
-764

穆公
-728

惠公
-768

隱公-
722

釐公
-730

文公
-765

莊公
-757

武公
-770

莊公
-743

         

桓王

-719

哀侯
-717

小子
-709

侯湣
-706

 

桓侯
-714

莊公
-701

歷公
-704

莊公
-699

殤公
-719

公馮
-710

宣侯
-710

桓公
-697

桓公
-711

襄公
-697

寧公
-715

出公
-703

武公
-697

宣公
-718

惠公
-699

歷公
-700

         

莊王

-696

 

文王
-689

哀侯
-694

 

宣公
-692

湣公
-691

莊公
-690

莊公
-693

桓公
-685

 

黔牟
-696

昭公
-696

子舋
-694

子嬰
-693

         

釐王
胡齊
-681

         

桓公
-681

     

德公
-677

 

歷公
覆立
-679

         

惠王

-676

獻公
-676

堵敖

-676

成王
-671

穆侯
-674

釐公
-670

昭公
-661
共公
-652

   

襄公
-657

湣公
-661

釐公
-659

 

宣公
-675

成公
-663

穆公
-659

懿公
-668

戴公
-660

文公
-659

文公
-672

         

襄王

-651

惠公
-650

文公
-636

襄公
-627

靈公
-620

穆王
-625

莊公
-645

 

穆公
-647

共公
-631

襄公
-650

成公
-636

昭公
-619

 

文公
-626

孝公
-642

昭公
-632

 

成公
-634

穆公
-627

         

頃王
壬臣
-618

 

莊王
-613

 

文公
-617

靈公
-313

 

桓公
-617

                   

匡王

-612

   

文公
-611

   

文公
-610

 

宣公
-608

懿公
-612

惠公
-608

共公
-608

             

定王

-606

成公
-606

景公
-599

共王
-590

景侯
-591

宣公
-594

成公
-598

共公
-588

宣公
-601

昭公
-586

成公
-590

頃公
-598

桓公
-603

穆公
-599

定公
-588

靈公
-605

襄公
-604

悼公
-586

         

簡王

-585

歷公
-580

悼公
-572

   

成公
-577

 

平公
-575

武公
-573

襄公
-572

靈公
-581

景公
-576

獻公
-576

成公
-584


壽夢
-585

       

靈王
泄心
-571

平公
-557

康王
-559

 

武公
-554

哀公
-568

 

文公
-554

懿公
-548

 

莊公
-553

景公
-547

 

殤公
-558

獻公
覆立
-546

釐公
-570

簡公
-565


諸樊
-560

余祭
-547

       

景王

-544

昭公
-531

頃公
-525

郟敖
-544

靈王
-540

平王
-528

靈侯
-542

平侯
-530

悼侯
-521

平公
-527

悼公
-523

惠公
-533

元公
-531

惠公
-544

悼公
-535

共公
-528

平公
-523

昭公
-541

 

哀公
-536

襄公
-543

靈公
-534

定公
-529


余昧
530

       

悼王

-520

                                 

敬王

-519  

定公
-511

昭王
-515

惠王
-488

昭侯
-518

成侯
-490

襄公
-514

隱公
-509

靖公
-505

伯陽
-501

-487
宋滅

懷公
-505

湣公
-501

-479
楚滅

景公
-516

簡公
-504

獻公
-492

定公
-509

哀公
-494

晏孺
子荼
-489

悼公
-488

簡公
-484

平公
-480

惠公
-500

悼公
-490

歷共

-476

出公
-492

莊公
-480

君起
-477

出公
覆元
-476

獻公
-513

聲公
-500


闔閭
-514

夫差
-495


允常
-510

勾踐
-496

     
戰國 475 BC - 256 BC Warring States
   

元王

-475

出公
-474

 

聲侯
-471

亡國 亡國              

-473
越滅

       

貞定
王介
-468

哀公
-456

 

元侯
-456

侯齊
-450

-447
楚滅

亡國 亡國

昭公
-450

孝公
-464

成公
-449

悼公
-466

宣公
-455

躁公
-422

悼公

-455

敬公
-450

哀公
-462

亡國

鹿郢
-464

不壽
-458

朱勾
-448

襄子
-457

文侯
-446

 

哀王
去疾
-441

    亡國 亡國 亡國               亡國        

思王

-441

    亡國 亡國 亡國               亡國        

孝王

-440

幽公
-437

簡王
-431

亡國 亡國 亡國  

湣侯
-433

元公
-428

 

懷公
-428

昭公
-431

  亡國        

威烈
王午
-425

烈公
-419

聲王
-407

亡國 亡國 亡國

悼公
-403

釐公
-402

穆公
-407

康公
-404

田齊
太公
-404

靈公
-425

簡公
-414

悼公

-425

慎公
-414

幽公
-423

繻公
-422

亡國


-411

桓子
-424

獻子
-423

列侯
-409

 

景侯
-409

安王

孝公
-392

靜公
-377

-376
韓,
魏,
趙,
三家
分國

悼王
-401

肅王
-380

亡國 亡國 亡國

休公
-395

   

田齊
侯剡
-384

田氏
并齊
-379

惠公
-399

出子
-386

獻公
-384

 

康公
-395

亡國

諸咎
-376

敬侯
-386

武侯
-396

列侯
-400

哀侯
-377

烈王

-375

亡國

宣王
-369

亡國 亡國 亡國

剔成
-369

桓公
-372

共公
-375

田齊
桓公
-375

 

聲公
-372

-375
韓滅

亡國


錯枝
-375

成侯
-374

惠王
-370

共侯
-374

顯王

-368

亡國

威王
-339

懷王
-328

亡國 亡國 亡國

君偃
-328

文侯
-361

易王
-332

康公
-352

景公
-343

田齊
威王
-356

孝公
-361

惠文

-337

惠文
王后

-324

成侯
-361

平侯
-332

嗣君
-324

亡國 亡國

無顓
-362

-355
楚滅

肅侯
-349

武靈

-325

惠王
后元
-335

釐侯
-362

威侯
-332

宣王
-325

慎靚
王定
-320

亡國   亡國 亡國 亡國  

王噲
-320

 

田齊
宣王
-320

    亡國 亡國 亡國  

襄王
-318

 

赧王

-314

亡國

頃襄

-298

孝烈

-262

亡國 亡國 亡國

-286
齊滅

昭王
-311

惠王
-278

武成

-271

平公
-314

湣公
-295

頃公
-272

田齊
湣王
-301

田齊
襄王
-283

田齊
王建
-264

武王
-310

昭襄

-306

懷君
-282

亡國 亡國 亡國

惠文

-298

孝成

-265

昭王
-295

安釐

-276

襄王
-311

釐王
-295

桓惠

-272

-256
周王
亡國

幽王
-237

哀王
-228

負芻
-227

-223
秦滅

亡國 亡國 亡國

-286
齊滅

孝王
-257

王喜
-254

-222
秦滅

-249
楚滅

-221
秦滅
田齊

-250

莊襄

-249

王政
-246

元君
-252

君角
-229

亡國 亡國 亡國

悼襄

-244

王遷
-235

-222
秦滅

景湣

-242

王假
-227

-225
秦滅

王安
-238

-230
秦滅

秦 221 BC - 206 BC
                   

秦始
皇帝

-210
死去

             
                   

二世
皇帝
胡亥
-209

-209
秦滅

           

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

子嬰
-209

-209

項羽

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

亡國

漢 206 BC - AD
et cetera...

In the final years of the Warring States, one state after another was conquered by the state of Qin. In 221 BC, YING Zheng 嬴政 of Qin 秦, proclaimed himself the First Emperor 始皇帝. He died of an illness whilst touring his realm in 206 BC. His advisor LI Si 李斯 and chief eunuch ZHAO Gao 趙高, schemed to place the emperor's favourite son on the throne, by first concealing the fact that emperor had died, then by issuing a false edict ordering the eldest son FuSu 扶蘇 to commit suicide.

In 206 BC, HuHai 胡亥 was installed as the second Qin emperor ErShi HuangDi 二世皇帝 lasting only 3 years. Rebellions across the empire occured, and old states tried to ressurrect their regional power bases. Zhao Gao got ErShi to have Li Si killed, only to fall victim himself when Zhao murdered Ershi. Zhao Gao installed HuHai's nephew, ZiYing 子嬰 as the third Qin Emperor. ZiYing had Zhao Gao executed.

However, after only 46 days on the throne, LIU Bang 劉邦 from JiangSu 江蘇 lead an army to the Qin household and forced the abdication of the young emperor. ZiYing was murdered by XiangYu 項羽 an old Chu 楚 state general was Liu Bang's rival to take the throne. As history shows, Liu Bang was successful, and founded the Han Dynasty 漢朝 which lasted about 400 years, with a slight break in the middle.


Sources:

Although I have used the available resources to compile these tables, there are bound to be differences or down right mistakes on my part with other books on history or historical resources. I'd be glad to hear about these differences, mistakes, or omissions.


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© Dylan W.H. Sung

This page was created on Tuesday 19th June 2001
and last updated on Thursday 25th April 2002.