漢語拼音方案

Chinese Phoneticisation Scheme


Mandarin Phonology

1958 年 2 月 11 日 第一屆全國人民代表大會第五次會議通過
11th February 1958, First National People's Representatives Meeting, Fifth Conference, Adopted.

一 字母表

1. Table of Characters

Character 字母 Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Fe Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm
Name
(in ZYFH)
名稱
(注音 符號)
ㄅㄝ ㄘㄝ ㄉㄝ ㄝㄈ ㄍㄝ ㄏㄚㄐ|ㄝ ㄎㄝ ㄝㄌ ㄝㄇ
(Pinyin)   a be ce de e ef ge ha i jie ke el em
Character 字母 Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Name
(in ZYFH)
名稱
(注音 符號)
ㄋㄝㄆㄝ ㄑ|ㄡ ㄚㄦ ㄝㄙ ㄊㄝ 万ㄝ ㄨㄚ ㄒ| |ㄚ ㄗㄝ
(Pinyin)   ne o pe qiu ar es te u ve wa xi ya ze

v 只用來拼寫外來語, 少數民族語言和方言. #
v are only used to write the sounds of foreign loanwords, minority languages and dialects. #

字母的手寫體依照拉丁字母的一般書寫習慣.
The letters' form are the same as those in the widely used Latin alphabet.

二 聲母表

2. Table of Initials (Consonants)

ㄅ 波 b ㄆ 坡 p ㄇ 模 m ㄈ 佛 f
ㄉ 得 d ㄊ 特 t ㄋ 訥 n ㄌ 勒 l
ㄍ 哥 g ㄎ 科 k ㄏ 喝 h    
ㄐ 基 j ㄑ 欺 q ㄒ 希 x    
ㄓ 知 zh ㄔ 蚩 ch ㄕ 詩 sh ㄖ 日 r
ㄗ 資 z ㄘ 雌 c ㄙ 思 s    

在給漢字註音的時候, 為了使拼式簡短, zh, ch, sh, 可以省作 , , .
When romanising hanzi, for the purposes of shortening zh, ch, sh, they may be written , , .

三 韻母表

3. Table of Endings (Rhymes)

    | i 衣   ㄨ u 烏   ㄩ 迂
ㄚ a 啊 |ㄚ ia 呀 ㄨㄚ ua 蛙  
ㄛ o 喔   ㄨㄛ uo 窩  
ㄜ e 鵝 |ㄜ ie 耶   ㄩㄜ üe 約
ㄞ ai 哀   ㄨㄞ uai 歪  
ㄟ ei 欸   ㄨㄟ uei, ui 威  
ㄠ ao 熬 |ㄠ iao 腰    
ㄡ ou 歐 |ㄡ iou, iu 憂    
ㄢ an 安 |ㄢ ian 煙 ㄨㄢ uan 彎 ㄩㄢ üan 冤
ㄣ en 恩 |ㄣ in 因 ㄨㄣ uen, un 溫 ㄩㄣ ün 暈
ㄤ ang 昂 |ㄤ iang 央 ㄨㄤ uang 汪  
ㄥ eng 亨的韻母 |ㄥ ing 英 ㄨㄥ ueng 翁  
(ㄨㄥong 轟的韻母) ㄩㄥ iong 雍    

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 在給漢字注音的時候, 寫了使拼式簡短, ng 可以省作 When phoneticising hanzi, one can simplify, ng, as

四 聲調符號

4. Tone Marks

Tone Mark 1 2 3 4
名稱
Tone
Name
陰平
Yin Ping
陽平
Yang Ping
上聲
Shang Sheng
去聲
Qu Sheng

Pin Yin Tone Mark
ˊ ˇ ˋ
調值
Tone Contour
/55 /35/ /214/ /51/

聲調符號標在音節的主要母音上. 輕聲不標. 例如:
The tone mark is written over the principle vowel of the syllable. The unstressed tone is unmarked, e.g.

媽 ma1 麻 ma2 馬 ma3 罵 ma4 嗎 ma
ma- maˊ maˇ maˋ ma
陰平 陽平 上聲 去聲 輕聲
Yin Ping Yang Ping Shang Sheng Qu Sheng Qing Sheng
Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 Unstressed Tone

[用注音符號的時候, 陰平不標, 輕聲標在音節的主要母音上, 寫成˙]
[When using ZhuYinFuhao, tone 1 is unmarked, and the unstressed tone is marked with the mark ˙]

例如:
For example:

五 隔音符號

5. Separating Marks

a, o, e 開頭的音節連接在其他音節後面的時候, 如果音節的界限發生混淆, 用隔音符號, 隔開,
When a, o, e begins a syllable, and follows another syllable, if the syllables have confusing boundaries, a separation mark is used to separate them,

例如 :
for example:


v, 兀 ng, な gn are not used to transcribe Putonghua Mandarin in Pinyin and Zhuyin Fuhao, although i is occasionally used as a convenient character to represent the vowel of the retroflex i (zhi chi shi). The latter character is not found in Big5.

Sources:


Mandarin : Cantonese : ChaoZhou : Hakka : Chinese Index

Translation and amendements (to include extra dialectal zhuyinfuhao, and difference in tone marking between Pinyin and ZYFH)

© Dylan W.H. Sung

This page was created on Sunday 3rd December 2000,
and last modified on Thursday 25th April 2002.